About Machine Learning (History and Definition):

  • History: Machine Learning (ML) has its roots in the mid-20th century with pioneers like Alan Turing. However, it gained significant momentum in the 21st century due to the availability of large datasets and computational power. The concept of ML evolved with the development of algorithms capable of learning patterns from data.
  • Definition: Machine Learning is a subset of artificial intelligence (AI) that focuses on developing algorithms that enable computers to learn and make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed. It involves the creation of models that improve their performance over time through experience.

Types of ML:

  1. Supervised Machine Learning:
  • Involves training a model on a labeled dataset where the algorithm learns the relationship between input features and corresponding output labels.

2. Unsupervised Machine Learning:

  • Works with unlabeled data, discovering patterns and relationships without predefined outputs. Common techniques include clustering and dimensionality reduction.

3. Semi-Supervised Machine Learning:

  • Combines elements of both supervised and unsupervised learning. The model is trained on a dataset with some labeled and some unlabeled examples.

4. Reinforcement Learning:

  • Focuses on training agents to make decisions in an environment to maximize cumulative rewards. Agents learn through trial and error.

Batch/Offline Machine Learning:

  • Training the model on the entire dataset at once. Parameters are updated after processing the entire dataset.

Disadvantages of Batch Learning:

  • Computationally intensive, especially for large datasets.
  • Requires storing the entire dataset in memory.

Online Machine Learning:

  • Incremental learning where the model is updated with new data points as they become available.


  • ML enables automation, pattern recognition, and decision-making in diverse domains such as finance, healthcare, and technology.

When to Use and How to Use:

  • Use ML when dealing with complex tasks where explicit programming is impractical. Determine the problem type (supervised, unsupervised, etc.) based on the nature of the data and the goal.
  1. Learning Rate:
    • Learning rate controls the step size during optimization. It influences the convergence speed and the risk of overshooting optimal values.
  2. Out of Core Learning:
    • Handling datasets too large to fit into memory. Algorithms process data in smaller chunks, enabling scalability.
  3. Disadvantages of Out of Core Learning:
    • Slower processing due to constant reading/writing to disk.
    • Complexity in managing data chunks.
  4. Batch vs Online Learning:
    • Batch learning requires processing the entire dataset, while online learning updates the model continuously with new data. Trade-offs include computational efficiency and adaptability.
  5. Instance-Based Learning:
    • Learning by memorizing examples. Predictions are based on similarity to known instances.
  6. Model-Based Learning:
    • Learning a model from the dataset, and predictions are made based on the model.
  7. Instance vs Model-Based Learning:
    • Instance-based learning is memory-intensive but adaptable to new data. Model-based learning is computationally efficient but relies on the accuracy of the model.
  8. Challenges in ML:
    • Data Collection: Obtaining high-quality, diverse, and representative data.
    • Insufficient/Labelled Data: Limited data can hinder the performance of models, especially in supervised learning.
    • Non-Representative Data: Bias or imbalance in the dataset may lead to biased models.

Machine Learning continues to evolve, addressing challenges and expanding its applications across industries. The field’s versatility and adaptability make it a crucial component of modern technological advancements.

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